Cold Wire Gas Metal Arc

Cold wire gas metal arc (CWGMA) additive manufacturing (AM) is more productive and beneficial than the common electric arc processes currently used in wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM). Adding a non-energised wire to the gas metal arc (GMA) system makes it possible to overcome a process limitation and decouple the energy input from the material feed rate. Two novel process control methods were proposed, namely, arc power and travel speed control, which can keep the required geometry accuracy in WAAM through a broad range of thermal conditions. The reinforcement area of the bead is kept constant with accurate control over the height and width while still reducing the energy input to the substrate; decreasing penetration depth, remelting, and the heat-affected zone (HAZ); and reaching a dilution lower than 10%. This work also presents improved productivity compared to all the other single-arc energy-based processes with a demonstrator part built using 9.57 kg h−1 with CWGMA AM.

J. B. Bento, C. Wang, J. Ding, and S. Williams, “Process Control Methods in Cold Wire Gas Metal Arc Additive Manufacturing,” Metals (Basel), vol. 13, no. 8, p. 1334, Jul. 2023, doi: 10.3390/met13081334